|Conception Of the Self
value placed on group cooperation and individual modesty.
value placed on self-reliance. Self-promotion is more
accepted. High value placed on "freedom" from
externally imposed constraints.
||Formal, hierarchical. People most comfortable in the presence
of a hierarchy in which they know their position and the customs/rules
for behavior in the situation.
||Informal, egalitarian. People most comfortable with their
social equals; importance of social rankings minimized.
||Small number of close, lifelong friends who feel deeply obligated
to give each other whatever help might seem required.
||Large collection of "friends" and acquaintances which
changes over time and involves only limited mutual obligations.
||Relationships with other people involve reciprocal obligations.
||People avoid interdependent relationships and situations
that might entail long-term obligations.
||Relationship-oriented: Maintaining a harmonious relationship
has priority over accomplishing tasks.
||Task-oriented. Relationships are less important than
getting the work done.
|Avoid direct confrontation, open criticism,
and controversial topics. Concern maintaining harmony
and with "face."
||Willing to confront directly, criticize,
discuss controversial topics, press personal opinions about
what they consider "the truth. Little concern
|Role of laws, rules, and regulations
||More faith in personal relationships than in written rules
and procedures for structuring interactions.
||Written rules presumably apply to everyone and are assumed
to produce fair, reasonable procedures and decisions.
||Relatively more attention to the past and to the longer-term
||Less interested in the past; eye on near-term future.
||Traditionally, a person's status in the society was based
importantly on inherited characteristics such as age, gender,
and family. This is changing.
||People's status is based mainly on their own achievements,
including education obtained and level of success realized
in their line of work.